Human Computer Interaction(HCI) in Bangladesh

HCI (Human Computer Interaction) is a well known research field worldwide. Tons of researches and inventions are undergoing. Almost every well known university opened their own HCI lab in their campuses.  The research on HCI started at late 50’s. But the main era begin at early 80’s when commercial companies showed their interest in user centered designs for better sale of their machines. And here HCI works at its highest peak. The main objective of HCI to design systems or interfaces that end user can easily use or interact. So from that time billions of dollars invested in the fields of HCI research. And that process is still going on. But as like other fields, Bangladesh wasn’t aware of such a great field of modern engineering. We outsourced many great software and systems but never works on their interfaces for lack of knowledge in HCI.
The institute that offered first HCI course in Bangladesh is Islamic University of Technology, shortly known as IUT. Though they didn’t focus on it in large scale but it’s a big initiative. The main works on HCI started in Bangladesh was by Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, shortly known as BUET. But they take a lot bigger step. They didn’t only start works on HCI; they started works on HTI [Human Technology Interaction]. HTI not only covered only human computer interaction but also human technology interaction likes: Electronics devices, interactive systems etc. 5 full time faculty members and more than 300 students involved with their lab. They write many research papers on it. They also got funding from World Bank for design a disaster management system.

The 3rd and most recent step was taken in Bangladesh by a private university called University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh, shortly known as ULAB. In the startup they set their focus on a portion of HCI called social computing. But they have bigger plan to convert it into main HCI research. The institute started a lab in their campus called “Soco Lab” with one full time faculty member and two undergraduate students. It’s a great initiative in country like Bangladesh that has very limited resources.
After evaluate those projects and researches, we can say that the future of Bangladesh in HCI is on experience hands and bright.

Ubuntu OS : The free world

Ubuntu:

    • Ubuntu is a Linux-based Operating System
    • It is Most Popular Linux Distribution.
    • It is open sourced
      • Cost free
      • Non-proprietary

  • Strong focus on
    • Usability
    • Easy to installation
    • One user (initially— you can add more users later)
    • One password
    • One CD for the entire operating system
  • Origin
    • Ubuntu is an ancient African concept meaning “humanity toward others”
    • It is developed under Debian Project.(Largest Linux software development community)
    • Sponsored by Canonical Ltd
    • Owned by South African billionaire Mark Shuttle worth

Ubuntu is a complete desktop Linux operating system, freely available with both community and professional support.

The Ubuntu community is built on the ideas: that software should be available free of charge, that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities, and that people should have the freedom to customize and alter their software in whatever way they see fit. The Ubuntu distribution brings the spirit of Ubuntu to the software world.

Ubuntu operating system powers millions of desktop PCs, laptops and servers around the world. Ubuntu works with our existing PC files, printers, cameras, music players and smartphones - and it comes with thousands of free apps.

User Interface:

The simplicity of Ubuntu’s stylish, intuitive interface is very enjoying. Its have more than 20 desktop environments. Like: Unity, KDE, Gnome-shell, Enlightenment, Cinnamon, QTile etc.

Web Apps:

If you use web applications like Facebook, Gmail or Flickr, you’re in for a treat. You can now pin them to the Launcher on the Ubuntu desktop and launch them with a single click. No more starting a browser, clicking on a bookmark and then logging in. Just go straight into the app, as if it was installed on your computer.

Online search:

The Dash has always let you search your computer for your files, photos and videos. Now it does more than just search your computer - it can search your online accounts too. So, once you’ve saved the login details in the ‘Online Accounts’ function, you can expect to see your Flickr photos, Google Drive documents and more in your search results, alongside the files on your computer.

Dash previews:

Ubuntu aims to take the effort out of everything. With Ubuntu 12.10, you can preview your search results in the Dash to see more options, without having to open more windows. Preview an album in the Ubuntu One Music Store and you’ll get the option to play tracks straight from the preview. And when you preview an app in the Ubuntu Software Centre, you can install it with just one more click.

Features:

Ubuntu gives us a new operating system every six months, great compatibility with other providers, security we can count on and the freedom to share it with anyone we like.

  • Ubuntu is free and always will be free.
  • No key codes, activation, registration.
  • It contain Multi Boot Loader (Grand Unified Boot Loader)

Flexible

  • Can be dual booted with current OS or used from a live CD(require RAM - 384MB)
  • Can run on older hardware and still perform well
  • Extends the life of your current hardware to nearly twice its useful life before needing to upgrade
  • It take less
    • installation time
    • boot up time
    • shut downtime
    • Space
    • Dual boot with Windows, MAC
  • Dell now offers desktops with Ubuntu

Open source

  • Run for any purpose
  • Study source code
  • Modify source code
  • Distribute and Publish

Ubuntu One

  • It is cloud file client like Amazon S3,Dropbox
  • Free data storage up to 5 GB
  • Any user can use through internet(No need of Ubuntu OS)
  • It has Ubuntu One Music Store like Ovi music in Nokia
  • Special mobile apps like Ubuntu One Music, Ubuntu One Files for Android and iPhone.

Compatible

  • Compatible with most hardware
  • Natively Compatible with MS programs:
    • MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, Publisher, Dreamweaver, Project, Adobe Acrobat

Ubuntu works brilliantly with a range of devices. Simply plug in your MP3 player, camera or printer and you’ll be up and running straight away. No installation CDs. No fuss. And it’s compatible with Windows too! So you can open, edit and share Microsoft Office documents stress-free.

Accessible

Accessibility is central to the Ubuntu philosophy. Fully translated into over 40 languages, Ubuntu also includes essential assistive technologies, which are, of course, completely free

Advantages:

  • Free
  • No office software needed (pre installed)
  • Quick booting
  • Fast; Ubuntu loads quickly on any computer, but it’s super-fast on newer machines. With no unnecessary programs and trial software slowing things down, booting up and opening a browser takes seconds. Unlike other operating systems that leave you staring at the screen, waiting to get online. And Ubuntu won’t grow sluggish over time. It’s fast. And it stays fast
  • Good looking- It’s beautiful, stylish and fast
  • Easy to use-Ubuntu does everything you need it to and more. It’ll work with music, videos, photos and files that you use on your current PC. And it works just as well with printers, cameras and all common smart phones
  • Minimum hardware requirements
  • Easy dual boot installation with Windows
  • Highly stable. Works well with Android phones. Integrated menus in the top bar save screen real estate if needed
  • Easy to trial and install-You don’t have to be an expert. Ubuntu’s quick and easy to get started
  • Up-to-date. Ubuntu is released in every six months and it brings regular updates for free

Security

  • All Operating Systems are vulnerable
  • Security requires a layered approach
  • Fire-starter as fire-wall
  • UBUNTU is immune to viruses- no antivirus needed- Life’s too short to spend it worrying about viruses
  • Anti-phishing
  • File encryption
  • Password protection
  • Built with security in mind
  • Automatic security updates
  • Built by hackers to be inherently more secure than any other operating system
    • Including spyware, adware, Trojan horses, worms, and any other malware protections
    • Antivirus : ClamTk (GNU)(GUI), ClamAv
    • Trusted OS
    • ATMs, BANK Server, some military aircraft

You can surf in safety with Ubuntu — confident that your files and data will stay protected. A built-in firewall and virus protection are available. And if a potential threat appears, we provide automatic updates which you can install in a single click. You get added security with AppArmor, which protects your important applications so attackers can’t access your system. And thanks to Firefox and gnome-keyring, Ubuntu helps you keep your private information private. So whether it’s accessing your bank account or sharing sensitive data with friends or colleagues, you’ll have peace of mind when you need it the most.

Architecture:

  • Dynamic loading of kernel module
  • Preemptive
  • Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) support
  • Linux does not differentiate between threads and normal processes
  • Linux provides an object-oriented device model with device classes,hotpluggable events and user-space device file system(sysfs)

Ubuntu Desktop certified hardware:

Dell, HP, Lenovo, Wipro, Asus, Acer, Toshiba, HCL Info systems Limited, Compaq

Ubuntu Server certified hardware:

Dell, HP, Lenovo, Acer, IBM, Cisco UCS, System76, Intel, Citrix Systems, Facebook - OCP, Sun, VMware

Software

  • Ubuntu Software Center featuring Thousands of free software and tools
  • Other free software are available via other sites like getdeb.net, appnr.com etc
  • We have to purchase other software if you want
  • You may need to purchase less than 1% of your software

Requirements

  • Requires less hard drive space (under 2-4 GB )
  • Requires less RAM ( 128-256MB )
  • Requires less CPU power (as old as Pentium II)
  • Maintains its performance speed no matter how much you use it

Ubuntu V/S Windows V/S Mac:

  • Version Upgrades:
    • Windows—averaging 2-3 years
    • Mac—every 2 years since 2003
    • Ubuntu—every six months
  • Version Upgrades:
    • Windows—months
    • Mac—weeks
    • Ubuntu—immediately

Firefox OS : The New Era

Computer Architecture:

Computer architecture is a conceptual design and fundamental “operational structure” of a computer system. The Process of assembling logical elements into a computing device; the specification of the relation between parts of a computer system.Modern Days Computer Architecture actually based on the revolutionary architecture, proposed and built by “Von Neumann” in 1945, (though there also some other architecture also followed now a days, such as Modified Harvard Architecture) but this is the most commonly used architecture for computers.

Mobile Device Architecture:

Well we all consider that today’s smart phones are also a computing devices. In general we can say that, but if we go much deep in this, then we can easily define some major differences between normal desktop/ laptop computers and the smart phones. Though these mobile devices also based on the IAS computer architecture, but it uses a little bit complicated architecture than IAS, we can see the differences with this picture.

With the computer architecture we can see there are some extended issues also added, such as the network operator + power & energy management etc. and there are also several peripherals are connected with the processor. Normal desktop/ Laptop PC’s has much more powerful machine and complicated Operating System to handle the whole system, in a small type mobile phone, we can’t and won’t use the same hardware & same OS as those PC’s,this type of smart phones needed more lite and needs special type of Operating System, which can manage the whole hardware & software resources to produce an optimized output.

In next topic we will see about the type of OS used in mobile phones and also what is the difference between the regular OS and Firefox OS

Operating System Architecture:

before describing the Firefox OS we would like to share a general OS model and few mobile OS model and talk a little about that.

General OS model:



Mobile OS model:

Fig: bada OS model (Samsung)



Fig: Android OS model

Here we can see that though these architecture are based on Linux kernel, we can easily understand that these OS’s are very much open source, but still there are some restrictions for the user, the device applications and service applications are have some terms & conditions. Operators and developers write apps and services for one platform and then rewrite them for others. Users who want to buy phones, e-readers and game consoles from different manufacturers often need to re-purchase apps for each device.

Now, we happily and proudly describe the advantages of Firefox OS. Let’s see a basic architecture of Firefox OS.

Fig: a basic model of Firefox OS

Firefox OS architecture based on these 3 parts, here is a description of it.

Gonk

Lower level operating system, consisting of a Linux kernel and HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer).Possibility to expose anything from the hardware to Gecko.

Gecko

The application runtime. The rendering engine in Firefox for HTML5, CSS & JavaScript. Implements a number of APIs.

So now things started making sense. Gonk abstracts hardware and provide system APIs in C language to Gecko. Gecko is ported to run on top of Gonk and make use of its system APIs and provides abstraction in form of friendly JavaScript APIs. Now everything on top of Gecko (even the UI of Firefox OS) will be written using HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript.

Gaia

Gaia is the UI written using pure HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript which runs on Gecko and make use of JavaScript APIs exposed by it. Gaia provides the all the required UIs and basic apps (Browser, Calendar, Calculator, Camera, Email, Radio, Music, etc.) for the phone. As it’s written in standard open APIs, you can test it in any HTML5 standard compliant browser.

There are several advantages of using this. Using HTML5 and the new Mozilla-proposed standard APIs, developers everywhere will be able to create amazing experiences and apps. Developers will no longer need to learn and develop against platform-specific native APIs.Consumers who use devices based on the Open Web platform will be able to easily access and download their own content regardless of which OS they use.OEMs and operators will be able to provide content and services across their entire device portfolio, regardless of OS. And they will be able to customize user experiences, manage app distribution and retain customer attention, loyalty and billing relationships.Firefox OS produces an implementation of these new Web standards to free mobile platforms from the encumbrances of the rules and restrictions of existing proprietary platforms.

Advantages/ Disadvantages:

The Technical part is already described, now we would like to move towards the user satisfaction point of view, what kind of advantages they will experience when they use Firefox OS.

Advantages:

  • Less Resource Hungry
    As explained above Firefox OS is based on bare Linux kernel, and Gecko engine which execute apps. So it takes very less device resources. It can run smoothly even on 256MB of RAM.
  • Power Consumption
    As mentioned above it uses very less resources compared to Android, I-OS, Windows Phone. This means it will consume less power and give long battery timing.
  • Lite and Fast
    Again it’s not only less resource hungry, but also fast and lite because of it will be executing nothing more than HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript.
  • Never Gets Obsolete
    This is the coolest thing of Firefox OS. It will never get obsolete unlike other operating systems like Android has versions 2.3.x, 4.0.x, 4.1.x. and they older ones gets obsolete with the passage of time. But your phone with Firefox OS will never get obsolete because it will continue to run newer apps because the apps are based on open web technologies (HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript). Also the new APIs/features added in the OS will effect on the Gonk or Gecko part.
  • No Porting Issue
    Developers don’t need to port their apps from Android or I-OS. They can simply create native app for Firefox OS from their web app using a simple JSON based manifest file. You can now start submitting apps to Mozilla Marketplace (which open soon later this year).

Disadvantages:

Well we know that this Firefox OS is newly launched, therefore it is a bit tough to identify any kind of disadvantage so early.
But as a general level issue, we can say that this Firefox OS is a touch based Operating System, if they want to compete in every level, they should not only stick with a special category, they also try to make an OS for normal mobile as well as for Desktop/ Laptop PC’s.
Another limitation is that we know it is a web based OS, so it may require Continuous Internet connection.

Marketing Policy:

Now another additional part we would like to give you a brief description about the recent market competition, to know get a general idea of the market this Firefox OS has to deal with.
According IDC press release in June ’12 the market prediction is looks like this:

Advantages:

  • Mid- priced smart phones: this is the most effective and unique field that Firefox OS should actually focus on. We talked earlier that this OS does not require much resources and built with very lite type of structure, so it can actually target the mid ranged smartphones in the market. We know the smartphones of other OS in the market are very expensive, if Firefox can provide similar privilege in less price, people will love it, and Firefox OS can make a monopoly business out of it!
  • Zone-wise market: Depending on the earlier point, Firefox OS can also focus on some additional markets also, with the mid ranged smartphones, the can actually make a market on the eastern Europe, far east Asia, central Africa; here the market of smartphone has low rate than other areas.
  • Young Generation: this is also actually depends on the 1st topic we discussed, that launching Firefox OS with midrange phones. Young people always fond of extra features in their phones, but everybody not always can effort it, this Mass population will also will be a huge income source when they will be provided what they want, in a very affordable price. Firefox should target this population and make smartphones according to their criteria. This will be helpful also.

Operating Systems

OS main functions:

  • Booting the computer

  • Performs computer tasks e.g. managing the various peripheral devices e.g. mouse, keyboard

  • Provides a user interface, e.g. command line, graphical user interface (GUI)

  • Handles system resources such as computer’s memory and sharing of the central processing unit (CPU) time by various applications or peripheral devices

  • Provides file management which refers to the way that the operating system manipulates, stores, retrieves and saves data.

OS as a resource manager:


  • The OS acts as the manager of these resources. Includes multiplexing (sharing) resources in two different ways. Each program gets :

  • Time with the resource

  • Space on the resource

  • Multiple users/applications can share, why share:

  • Devices are expensive,

  • There is need to share data as well as communicate

  • Facing numerous and possibly conflicting requests for resources, the OS must decide

  • How to allocate them to specific programs (processes, jobs)

  • How to protect applications from one another,

  • How to provide fair and efficient access to resources,

  • How to operate and control the various I/O devices.

Computer Organization and Architecture

Computer Organization:

In computer engineering, computer organization,also called micro architecture, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA) is implemented on a processor. A given ISA may be implemented with different micro architectures.

Computer Architecture:

In computer science and engineering, computer architecture refers to specification of the relationship between different hardware components of a computer system. It may also refer to the practical art of defining the structure and relationship of the subcomponents of a computer.

image

Study computer architecture and organizations:

To built faster processor. To choose a computer for a set of application in a project, to design a compiler or an operating system.

Limitations:

  • Size of components

  • Inefficiency

  • Power consumption

  • Emphasize on Software

  • Business Policy!

To Tumblr, Love Pixel Union